Page 14 of 'Extreme Cold'
'A History and Monologue on Matter and Natural Systems
in Materials Science of/for Energy Systems within
any Macroscopic Scale'.
by GP duBerger
So as you can see, "Entropy" can be a lot of fun and a very interesting thing for everyone when you think about it.
I dedicated more than an entire web page to it, instead of the Zeroth Law of Thermodynamics and enjoyed the whole experience and I hope you did too.
Nothing horrific, for something that is treated as terrible.
Like the Zeroth Law of Thermodynamics, Entropy keeps one reminded that we are only looking at, or talking about systems and each system, whether open, closed or isolated has a different form of entropy to consider its fate.
Physicists, mathematicians and their "communicators" should beware from now on and realize whether they are really thinking about SYSTEMS, or are they thinking about REAL THINGS.
Through the years I spent writing this, I was always fascinated why, among others, theoretical physicists, religious people and mathematicians meddle into Thermodynamics, with their preconceived ideas, which through their indoctrination, are only suitable to their areas of study.
(Am I detecting "Always-increasing entropy" in science and religion?)
They end up distorting the reality of their own field or beliefs while treating Thermodynamics as a by-product, where they forget that before any physics, math or supernatural event/miracle ever occurred, there was some thermodynamics cycle that already completed itself.
Even a God has to deal with the heat and pressure It creates or generates with miracles and changes, and that heat and pressure has to be apparent and go somewhere. This is always left out and things are always perfect. Another thing: God/gods never does/do ordinary things. He/She/It only does extraordinary things. This does not make any sense.
Now, human beings have been given, by Nature, an observable dynamic that is everywhere and can create real benefit or do serious harm, and authority distorts, or makes us ignore these things.
Accordingly, by the Bibles own reference, in listing miracles, the Earth should of been impossible to create, destroyed or not created with all that missing heat/pressure created from any of the Jewish Jupiter's gestures and activities.
If there is any Abracadabra going on anywhere, it is with Nature, in subatomic.
These are therefore fairy tales -Not miracles. This is probably another reason why Only the consumer-grade First and Second Laws are the ones only taught, or is passed off as "education" where their type of nonsense coming from everywhere can be made acceptable..
Thermodynamics does not deny many physicist's or mathematician's, or religious people's ideas, story telling, or dogma. It merely sees those ideas as something else; i.e. fairy tales -Not facts or proofs. There's no argument.
This is probably another reason thermodynamics is not popular. Within it one cannot argue anything like one can with religion, maths or physics; and human beings love to argue.
For instance: A thermodynamicist, with a knowledge of simple dynamic systems and their manipulation, could tell a bishop that God Itself is the ultimate and original creator of sin with his systems, and so is responsible for it all.
Therefore, sin has nothing to do with good and evil, but with blind obedience, which could all of been avoided by creating a better and clearer system. Then, God could be doing better things than being an accountant and discussing/arguing/fighting with His/Her/It's lieutenants. That's that.
Anyway, the only reasonable explanation I could find for this meddling was in the BBC Documentary 'The Clash of the Titans - Atom' Episode 1, which is a good history of Quantum mechanics (not Quantum physics) and discovery of the atom because the producers and writers specifically avoided Thermodynamics! Bravo!
(Quantum Physic's history starts with Maxwell, Hertz and Planck and not Boltzmann/Einstein)
Its only inclusion is, where they describe how proof of the atom became important in the 19th century because of the need to build better and more efficient steam engines. No one yet understood the dynamics of heat or pressure. So, at first, the then resurrected idea of the atom was used by Boltzmann (a mathematical model) to make calculations and accurate predictions.
Religious people and their systems understand little about pressure, heat and choo choo trains, but they took it upon themselves to brand Boltzmann "irreligious and a materialist". I doubt that, according to the video, this was the only reason for his suicide as everyone is accused as that, -even today, and I don't see many hanging themselves over that.
Romanticism was kept to a minimum after that little "quantum leap".
Then, before Thermodynamics could be properly developed, Quantum mechanics and Nobel Prizes were invented.
Well, Thermodynamics was totally abandoned. It never had a chance in that systematized and putrid petri dish, which is now history. It took another century for Thermodynamics and/in all its wonders to be rediscovered (stumbled upon) in Art history.
Among other things, we find from the very beginning of its modern history (see Extreme Cold Part 1) that there was already a problem regarding "measuring and calculating", very much like Heisenberg's discovery in Quantum Mechanics, but this was back in the 16th century.
The clues were already there, but were never used because there was no way to make money out of it. Quantum mechanics, along with new ridiculous laws providing protection exclusively to private enterprise, became the money-making system for those discoveries.
To this day, we hear people who follow Niels Bohr et al. teach about quantum mechanics to what they should be describing for heat. Further, they delight in teaching that "heat itself does not exist". (see BBC video, "What is One Degree".)
To me, this also explains why a lot of theoretical physicists and "communicators", speak about things like "Dark energy", walking through walls, time machines, etc., etc., have that 19th century Boltzmann-like air about them. Too bad it's not some noose around their necks instead.
So, despite their inability to see Entropy as one of many dynamic systems: The Earth, the universe, etc., are doing fine and will continue to do very well, regardless of any conditional entropy. It is the systems we create in them (that must/will have some kind of conditional entropy associated with it) that might not be doing well. If they are classically-based closes systems, they must transform in one way or another. There is nothing one can do about it, —even god.
The universe works this way for closed systems, where CHANGE (good or bad for us) is the only thing that must be considered in those sort of systems.
For any god to be unaware of Always-increasing entropy in his/her/its own created systems, this entity must be extremely stupid, or does not exist in the way his C.V. portrays him/her/it.
So, for example: The next time one hears such things on the news as tradition, culture, religion, "way of life", economy or any other form of trouble or horseshit being threatened/created; remember that they are only talking about systems, because that is what these things are. Those people involved and dependent in/on those systems and dynamics will suffer. The rest of the world, within other sorts of systems and its dynamics, will do fine.
On top of that, as an individual, it's probably not even your problem where thermodynamics would be very clear and would state specifically: "If everyone took care of themselves and not impose their redundant/unnecessary wants upon others, and expect it all for free, this world would be a wonderful place".
Like the weather report, the news only discusses systems and there is nothing to get bothered over except (like the weather) to put on the appropriate clothing and protection when going out.
Any type of Philosophy is just a discussion or explanation of some system for some closed system (i.e. "Programming" or "Indoctrination") and is never an elemental reality or truth.
How deep in the rabbits fur you want to be in any of those systems, will bring you along with it. Fate itself is subject to the type of system one belongs to, via its unique inevitability and no system is any different than some thermodynamic system, where you will discover for yourself that all educators, communicators and authority teach/uphold only CLOSED systems.
Time to think more of the verb, "To be" instead of the verb, "To have" since, "to have" anything in either a closed system, or open system, or an isolated system are entirely different things in themselves, if we are to believe the lessons taught by matter and energy among these available systems.
There's nothing bad at all with entropy unless your entire existence lives in/as a closed system, along with its particular technology, along with the belief systems and indoctrination that support and uphold closed systems exclusively, as the only way of life and existence.
Entropy is the only guarantee in this universe that everything that is not free will become free eventually and nothing, including the Pope or Acme, etc. can stop this.
Depending on one's character, attitude and sense of value, one can be negative or positive, victimized or enhanced about always-increasing entropy. "Are they pieces of a broken dish, or are they now good drainage for potted plants?" "So, the dish is no longer any good to serve food: Break those pieces some more and we have an anti-glissade, or a handy abrasive for cleaning/polishing!"
Just like Super-evolution, we see, that the former dish, now, has a more complex and useful relationship with other systems.
Now, one can beware when scientists, religious people, philosophers, politicians, etc., are talking about systems, or are they talking about real things and trying to carry you away with them, with their biased conclusions.
All the conditional entropies of/in the universe are more pervasive than gravity, and exist beyond that.
(this sort of evolution includes all life and all things whether animate or inanimate)
The physicist's "arrow of time" is actually an Closed-system Abrahamic philosophy, where in reality the discussion should flow within the idea that elemental entities evolve initially from complex systems. From them and their evolution, those simpler systems, themselves, evolve complex relationships outside of themselves.
For example: Plants and trees, which have been around much longer, show this flow for evolution (evolving from more complex dicots to simpler monocots). It is their interplay between different species that becomes more complex, of which we (humans) are going in the reverse, which spells eventual extinction for us, if religion, science or lawyers have their way, along with our Id and egos.
Work and energy, because of matter, evolve too where the requirements of those things to perform their purposes become alien to intelligence originating from/in the present universe.
We see this evolution with matter and energy from the time before the supposed "Big Bang", where/when there were no protons, but there was pre-atomic matter in different and more complex families.
The Atom, can be seen as a system for organization and simplification in the function of matter and energy where complexity was transferred to interaction between different atoms and the new systems they created. Always, Thermodynamics was there, in the before and after.
Intelligence, awareness, imagination, perception, including all mathematics and the value in/of all things are different too.
What is Work energy and matter here are other things in the future, and "future" also means "there". In this other universe, time and space will also of been simplified to the point they are one system.
It's also very nice to know in advance, that wasteful systems you don't like will all die horribly and there is no way to help them either and what one simply has to watch is what will replace these systems that will need replacing, where we will decide, in advance, whether they are sustainable and automatic (à la Heron) and in line with Nature or not. A = C.
Life is actually quite simple and harmonious. It is also nice to know that the universe takes care of itself and you are part of that system of self-care. It might not be immortality, but maybe something better.
No one's life, no matter how long or short, blissful or painful, is a waste, but has important meaning and is recorded in an entirely different kind of book.
No type of Authority, except for Art and artists will tell you about this book.
So happily on my way to Absolute Zero with my Dragon, burning every cockamamie idea in science and while clearing the way, I discovered a bit of Turbulence in my creative-imagination.
It just made me depressed when I thought of the road that was laid before me when I scouted ahead because it got worse, just like the story I related about with Robert Boyle and Guillaume Amontons where it was a concern in the 17th century, just how cold it could get.
Here, as I approach The Third Law of Thermodynamics, is a scenario more resembling a grasping of nature's secrets as if Nature was something to be won and the spoils are treated as trophies of conquests and less about those who would approach nature cautiously and respectfully with wonder while It shares Its infinite point-of-views willingly, even playfully.
These people, who make their appearance after 1823, but can be traced back to characters like Francis Bacon and even Plato, whom I feel soil this wonderful story by contrasting so much with those who were and are truly, honest and virtuous in the scientific community.
In the end, this spirit and rational of competing for prizes at the expense of everything erodes science itself.
Suffice to say, if Prometheus came down from Olympus, today, and gave man Fire, it would be certain that some cretin would come along and steal it for himself, like a Marconi, and then license its use for a fee, along with the ever-present standardizing committees/communities for those bodies who would regulate its use and decide its proper format.
This story of 'Extreme Cold', as we approach modern times, is replete with, boringly-predictable, Tonya Hardingized-based plots and intrigue, without any of her twists.
At best, the evil Tonya Harding gave us a complete a triple axle jump and her name has established an excellent new and useful adverb, or adjective, in line with the morals of the modern times.
I questioned any reason to continue, since it destroyed my original inspiration for this story and the conclusion I had in mind to finish-off Europe's mini ice age and all its achievements and move on to the future when considering whom I have to discuss.
The story is: Originally back in 2010 I was minding my own business and spending the holidays in my favourite place and time, — space. Since I'm a "Scotty Beam Me Up" kind of guy, you can, easily, imagine that my holidays were, contentedly, spent in the "Delta Quadrant" with Captain Janeway, and Captain Sisko in the "Gamma Quadrant" and with Picard and Kirk in the "Alpha Quadrant", or Captains Jeffrey Sinclair, John Sheridan and Elizabeth Lochley on Babylon 5 in hyperspace, and on any other ship or space station I could find. Anything to get off this crazy planet and disappear and avoid Santa. Yes! I don't like Christmas, but I'm no Ebenezer Scrooge either.
During this blissful holiday excursion across the galaxy à la Harcourt Fenton Mudd, running away from his wife, "Stella" by going deeper and deeper into space; of many voyages and adventures, while looking for ships, I found one that floats on the PBS channel on You Tube, called 'Carrier'. For ten parts you're aboard the AirCraft Carrier USS Nimitz ("Never-Imagined-Myself-In-This-Zoo") with its crew during a deployment. This link, Carrier from PBS used to go to the entire playlist, but now you will have to go hunting elsewhere when there.
Of course, my appetite for documentaries is also insatiable. The unbelievable things they say in most of these documentaries are more entertaining to me than a movie.
That's how I ended up discovering that unbelievable science/thermodynamics documentary called, 'Absolute Zero'.
From always-increasing entropy to Augury!
The problem occurred because after watching a Video: 'Absolute Zero', a couple of times I started to notice inconsistencies, contradictions and basically, things that, really, didn't make any sense and the story starts to fall apart and it wakes you up after initially making you falling asleep with this nonsense like some sort of reverse nightmare. Where the "documentary", 'Carrier' is just some entertaining, well-made American-Navy propaganda, the science "documentary" 'Absolute Zero' is nothing but nonsense that treats people like fools where, at my age, I would have expected the reverse situation.
In this situation: I'm treated to very well-made political/Navy propaganda and in another, very lousy science. To me, that's an amazing eye opener.
I, somehow discovered I was trapped in some system within a medium (social media) that, collectively, was saying one thing, while itself was doing an entirely different thing.
I asked: "Where lay the purpose". It now seemed to me, that philosophy itself has its own equivalence to optical illusions!
This was compounded when I did some cross-checking and research: I discovered even more things that didn't make sense, culminating to the part where I write: "turbulence in my creative-imagination". Then, and there it occurred to me (as, simultaneously, the story itself showed me), that turbulence itself had the answer to save this story, while I was watching a demonstration, in that video, of Liquid Helium forming itself into a superfluid through the use of evaporation and condensation and nothing else.
It was an amazing thing to watch the turbulent "anger" of liquid helium boiling and condensing, vehemently, (just like me) in its Dewar flask and then suddenly — out of nowhere; complete, utter, calm and serenity while matter was becoming quantum mechanical and now part of an open system because of this. This became a personal lesson for me and demonstrated naturally, by this example, what can be demonstrated with chaos and turbulence, which all by itself became calm.
It appears that chaos and anything by Boltzmann and his statistical approach has limits and is certainly not universal or "infinite", and we need not venture very far either.
It stopped boiling, but continued to condense and evaporate! What was the liquid helium doing? How could refrigeration occur with the liquid helium not boiling anymore with no more convection possible (super heat conductivity). It is as if the helium atoms were, spontaneously, moving into a new threshold as if they were preparing to exist in another plane of the Universe where turbulence of convection in boiling could no longer be accommodated, but evaporation and condensation could (my first impression), later discovering that heat was now being transmitted without any resistance.
Now, we keep mindful of Matter's cooling capacity and not heat capacity, as already demonstrated in the monologue where matter can be, or is responsible for space, too.
This phase change between one liquid to another liquid is like the phase change of one universe to another universe (classical to quantum), yet the Laws of Thermodynamics have not changed, even though some forces and effects were now quantized!
(You Tube has many excellent videos from different sources with demonstrations, in classical mechanics, on different flows [of water] including the differences between laminar and turbulent flow and their causes that are worth checking if you are interested in such things. Just google the highlighted words above, and type: /You Tube)
In the "matters" concerning the work of Lene Hau whose experiments have demonstrated that light can be stopped and any information stored within can be stored indefinitely within a Bose-Einstein condensate. This scientist is way ahead of her time.
Some people have asked me how come the laser light carrying the information is stopped and does not heat the Bose-Einstein condensate?
The only explanation I can give is that laser light can be at any temperature including temperatures encompassing matter that can only exist at such low temperatures. It is used, after all, for cooling already. This light at a specific temperature travels at the speed of light in free space until it is forced into a Bose-Einstein condensate. The "control laser" light used to send the light on its way again is probably much hotter.
I'm an artist —not a physicist and can only provide an obvious explanation based on Thermodynamics. What surprises me, is that people would ask me. I suppose, in this situation, I would be a bridge between layman and physicist.
Unfortunately, like the steam engine, they are already patenting this technology and its specifications (yes! One only needs to patent a specification!) without knowing how or why it works and call these things "effects" with their personal names attached.
(I'm not criticizing the people involved, but the existing situation in "modern" society. Today, patents/copyrights/trademarks and now, Creative Barcodes are absolutely necessary since if one does not take appropriate action, one would have to pay to use one's own research and discoveries because of unscrupulous individuals, universities/institution, anonymous societies and/or legal entities would take your idea, creation or invention for themselves.)
They should remove the "right" to patent anything if the inventor can't explain how something works or can be demonstrated as to its immediate practicality since by being allowed to patent devices that produce "effects" one creates patent squatting instead (⇐ Google the highlight because there are many good articles on this.) where someone who can build a better device and actually explain the thing concisely is never awarded the patent.
It is the difference between an idiot tinkerer owning something and a genius, who works hard, owning something. Society must decide whether to reward blunderers and/or thieves, or reward hard-working intelligent people.
Another solution would be that patents and their royalties would be shared between those parties. One for discovering, and the other for explaining.
This disgraceful practice of squatting science became epidemic with Thomas Edison, where most of the things he patented either didn't work or there is no explanation to the phenomena in what it produced. These things that he patented (all closed systems) gave him the ability to sue others who also got, or applied for, patents for things that resembled his "invention" so that he could claim to be the first. (Marconi was even worse and patented other people's inventions and systems that were already patented by the original inventors.)
Since, the other inventor could explain his invention and Edison could not, and the same goes with Marconi who stole the invention of the radio from Tesla, among others. Edison, Marconi and others like them would eventually lose their patents with the cases they lost which, of course, depends on whom has more money to pay the lawyers to tie things up for decades.
Whether one is an artist or scientist: Human creativity is lost unless one is a billionaire to defend his inventions or ideas, while amusing one's self with the future and society. All new things and evolution is now subject to the capacities of a few thousand people who are only interested in themselves privately.
These are the things, involving corrupt laws in every nation that support people like Edison and Marconi and their like with their closed systems, that people should fight over and not some war in some godforsaken land somewhere or fight over religion and resources, etc. because the things you are loyal to, are the things actually killing you, — not your supposed enemy, who basically couldn't care less if you were alive or dead because he doesn't know you, except for what their authority tells them what you are, so they have their own problems too.
Unfortunately for Tesla and others , Marconi who worked for the venture capitalist J.P. Morgan, (like Edison) who had spies and informants in the patent office, could also afford sophistic lawyers and tie up their fraudulent claims for decades, yet even today after Marconi lost his case a long time ago as not being the inventor of wireless voice communication, the media and textbooks for children, sanctioned by society from their most important "thinkers" and policy makers, still say Marconi is the inventor of wireless voice communication and Edison as the "greatest inventor" where these guys are nothing but tinkerers, exploiters and thieves, working for greedy venture capitalists.
Interestingly, it is things like "perpetual motion" that keeps us looking into unscrupulous, no-talent people, their closed systems and their activities where we learn that, qualitatively, the more money one has, the more one has to steal from others. The less money we have, the less we need to steal from others.
These people/legal entities promote systems and not real things or people.
Why do people write down history and facts when they don't provide the basic truth in things? Because education and mass media is controlled and they only show you what they want you to know, in the way they want you to "know" it. This becomes adopted/adapted as one's own thoughts.
What is freedom, if everybody has to play games?
There is no point in patenting anything today, unless you are part of the game. There is another speech that is much better, from the Joker character, itself, in the movie 'The Dark Night' (2008), when he is getting beaten while being "interrogated" by Batman at the police station, which is appropriate since the police are becoming corrupt, bigoted and militarized in free societies nowadays.
The latest events while editing this page (2017) in Montreal and in Paris, being the latest examples. (Any major city in this world, today, can now make those claims of police corruption, bigotry, and militarization.)
He tells Batman: "You have nothing to threaten me with; nothing to do with all that strength". In the case of both the Joker and Heath Ledger, they were actually destroyed by society and not by people and in the case of Heath Ledger it was with administered prescription drug medications that killed him that are not only legal, but being pushed on TV and Radio, etc. with commercials and advertising.
Prescription drugs are the number two killer in America (copy and paste, highlighted text to your search engine), because of side-effects and poisonings, yet people are told that these are good things. Where, the actual drugs sold on the streets today by "criminals" don't kill as many. If it comes to that: They kill themselves for real reasons and not by "accident".
"Criminals" are created and destroyed by society and its supporting systems and institutions, not people. Can you imagine any population that is not afraid anymore, because this fear and ignorance is actually being generated by various forms of authority to maintain their position and power instead of using love.
Now: Teach citizens and kids, Thermodynamics beginning with the Zeroth Law, and the devil or any angel and whatever they represent disappears from the Universe entirely, along with their respective lies. Angels lie just as much as devils do, and I can prove it.
If we believe Nature instead:
By Nature alone: 'If it's Conserved, it exists.'
This is the only criteria we need to determine and define existence! Only Thermodynamics describes Conservation from the very beginning and is not just something we bump into, eventually, like in chemistry or physics, society or religion, etc., etc., where/when we are ill prepared where we start filling in spaces with things like aether, dark energy, gods, prophets, saviours, etc., etc..
Thermodynamics gives us the backbone to deal with any form of perception, system or idea.
There is only Hot and Cold, compression/decompression good and bad, etc., and they and everything else are all completely transitive and controlled by their own form of equilibrium, in any type of system. As elements to a system, they are answerable to themselves first, to work in anything, anywhere. You need not be involved. Just follow what works. No faith is required. no money down. Nothing!
You don't turn the other cheek anymore because they have made a total mockery out of JC. Now, you take the punches and laugh at their face and the harder they hit you, the harder you laugh at them, like the Joker.
Those who claim to have original ideas, "to serve the betterment of mankind", where they themselves cannot explain what makes it better. So, it is not their original idea or research; or they are just tinkering, so they have no right to teach or dispense "wisdom" or philosophy.
Today, this would be equivalent to what most understand as cyber-squatting. Do they work to enrich themselves or do they work to enrich humanity? To me it is even simpler: I find any society, and what it accepts as normal, and condemns as bad, disgusting and rotten to the core as hypocritical without a single redeeming feature, anywhere when it interferes.
Leave people alone, going about their business and things will thrive all by themselves.
People are great, not nations, religions or civilizations. All these disparities with different nations and cultures, that all eventually forment any political evil begin with intervention and interference from within, which decide and program local traditional values, morals, liberties and fears, where in actuality human beings are all the same.
It is only their culture and climate (in temperament and skin colour) that makes people different.
I have prepared a playlist for those who wish to begin studying Low-temperature physics a bit more. You can take a break from me and be delighted with a lot of interesting properties of Liquid Helium 1 and 2, in both their liquid phases, in these videos from the point of view of Applied Physicists (where you get the real science). These two links (below) open to new tabs so you won't lose your place here.
This stuff, although alien in most discussions in physics, is important because here we get an opportunity to study Nature in a simpler form where there are more forces in matter to consider. Of course, some would argue less forces, but the key note here is "simpler" that's important and not tearing things apart like a ten-year old and never putting it back together again.
Of course, this stuff is old, but they provide the viewer a "launch pad" to pursue further what interests them and "super conducts" any research in modern times very effectively where you can steer clear and avoid any HS (Def: Horror Stories), that you will find there, — which you always will.
- Alfred Leitner: Superfluid Liquid Helium (Isotope 4) - (39 min., 1963)
- Alfred Leitner: Superconductors (of Type I) - (48 min., 1965) It's important to update Alfred's Video with where he demonstrates aspects of conflicting Viscosity in Superfluid helium 4, in that only certain fluid velocities are allowed. This was not known then. There is a minimum velocity, then twice that minimum, then three times the minimum and so on. No velocity's between these values are permitted, so the vortices are said to be "quantized", therefore, ultra cold follows quantum mechanical rules and Super Cooled condensed matter is macrocized quantum physics. For more related stuff by Alfred Leitner; His Entire collection can be viewed or downloaded for DVD from this link at:
- alfredleitner.com and they are all in the Public Domain
All this old stuff from the 1940s, 50s, 60s and 70s is great because you get to update these videos and other media in any format you want and by updating them you learn things and it is a unique approach and experience in learning physics, quantum mechanics, chemistry, etc., because you are picking up from where they left off, but with readily available information to do it, with that has been certified as real and not the BS (Bad Stories) à la Brian Greene we see now all over the place, which is why I say, "Triple check everything today".
Where then, you can connect the dots and some of them would be missed by the very people who work in that field you are studying. Plus your research and updating gets citation value automatically. Do I have to go on........... Do you want to be successful? — do what your successful ancestors did. Become a friendly 'Hunter Gatherer' who, by the way, only worked two hours a day to get everything they needed to feed themselves and their families and no one was greedy either and decided to pick all the berries and fruit for themselves.
(It's when these people and their closed systems appeared, people had to start working longer and harder hours! They called that "Civilization".)
Hunting and gathering is also an "Equal-Opportunity-Employer" and the sky's the limit in any venture! Humankind can only flourish indefinitely where there is natural growth going on around him — Not artificial growth, in anything, and the day someone controls natural growth in things and/or prevents people to grow themselves, people starve or become impoverished or stupid.
Today, instead of hunting and gathering animals and berries, we would hunt and gather information and technology and learn to create new things we need for ourselves.
This, would be in accord with a true Evolution.
Of course, I look at many videos on the Third Law of Thermodynamics and Nuclear Chemistry, hoping to recreate the links of developement in, "one thing leading to another", including their meaning as an artist could appreciate.
The Liquification of Hydrogen and other gases that were "incondensable" to Faraday and others was finally made possible by the work of Johannes Diderik van der Waals and Heike Kamerlingh Onnes (among others).
Anyway, Onnes work made all the difference and changed history, but credit should not go only to him.
With the help of "slaves" as exploited students, housed in what he called a "technical college", which he created, he provided a set of "blueprints" for applied and experimental physicists that indicated how to liquefy "noncondensable" gases, i.e. hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and carbon monoxide, etc.
By determining the spaces between those molecules and their sizes and their affinities he was able to determine their Phase-Change, which sounds more like Natural Philosophy and not science or "brilliant work" after all, but a lot of drudgery from his students, but is made to appear, in history, as scientific achievement.
This reminds me: From an Ancient Book on Natural Philosophy.
The injurious effects of this blind adherence to his views necessarily impaired free thought and prevented all progress in science which was forced to follow forever the beaten track first marked out for her by the Stagyrite.
It is needless to dwell on the inconvenience of so circumscribed a method of studying nature. In her domains nothing is speculative, nothing is true but what can be demonstrated, and experiment must always come forward to confirm theory. Chemistry, in thus dissecting substances aims at unveiling the constituent parts at penetrating into these mysteries which matter, whether inert or organized, conceals from our view, and at ascertaining their true nature. She commences by destroying, but only in order to reconstruct — she separates the elements in order to combine them once more and thus destroys in order to create anew.
— from 'The Wonders of Water' By Gaston Tissandier (1872)