Page 11 of 'Extreme Cold'
'A History and Monologue on Matter and Natural Systems
in Materials Science of/for Energy Systems within
any Macroscopic Scale'.
by GP duBerger
They discovered through Low Temperature Physics, which was dealt with mostly in Nuclear chemistry laboratories, that there was a big difference between Entropy in an open system, Entropy in a closed system and Entropy in an isolated system, among other things especially where the data they had previously, indicated strange and inappropriate ideas and not from any laboratory. Kelvin and no other scientists, of the time and to this day except those concerning the Third Law of Thermodynamics (Cryogenics), which appeared in the 1930s, have ever performed any kind of experiment on Entropy, yet, miraculously, they all tell us what it is conclusively as per any system. British chemist, Peter Atkins claims he "knows" Entropy (remember Lieb and Yngvason (1999) Z?)
It seems Atkins is just as nuts as Hawking to "know" entropy; the latter claims to be a reincarnation of Galileo, and we pay attention to these guys?! I know schizophrenics who make more sense with their own babble when their condition begins to be acute and they're near their injection time and have to go to their appointment at the CLSC.
First of all, there in no such thing as Entropy, but there is, "never decreasing/increasing entropy" or, "always increasing/decreasing entropy". Entropy is a dynamic, not a thing or a philosophy based on Newtonian/Cartesian/Neo-Platonic "things" except where/when we consider comedy in what chemists and physicists have to say about entropy in public. That's a thing to laugh at.
At least, Antoine Lavoisier with his ideas of 'Absolute Zero' being between -1500 and -3000 C, performed many experiments for his Caloric theory.
To reiterate: The only actual experiments they are doing with entropy concern the Third Law of Thermodynamics and nowhere else, which is probably where Atkins gets his ideas from, but he applies them to The Second Law of Thermodynamics which philosophically in this case, these two laws and their physical or chemical principles regarding entropy are incompatible among other things like when they treat quantum mechanics and all particle physics like they were only closed systems, or bend all of Nature into such an exclusive idea.
Anyway, a new Entropy needed to be formulated by/for quantum and nuclear physicists in the proper way, with experiments, including mathematical proofs because, despite quantum physic's renowned flexibility in philosophy (meaning: Weird), it does not tolerate fantasies, —even qualitative ones, which would have been avoided if they put Entropy, as a Principle, as part of the First Law of Thermodynamics, where it came from through its original: "Fundamental Principles of the Conservation of Energy" (as: 'Energy that can be used for Work, and energy that cannot be used for Work') while denoting each system with their beloved "Arrow of Time" which would of prevented their dreaming up of Strings and Time Machines in the first place, as this is a form of energy that is also conserved in any system and in normal conditions it can never decrease in an isolated system and never increase in an open system, or as a separate law entirely so long as both Quantum and Classical, Open, Closed and Isolated system's requirements are met.
Remember now, where I discussed Stone-age man and their criteria for reality and existence was whether something was conserved or not and not some Cartesian or other philosophical intellectual nonsense. So: If Entropy is conserved somewhere, it therefore exists. It is just a matter of choosing your preferred system or accept the one given to you in life by society and that's where all philosophy, technology and even religion come in, and in most cases it is closed systems that dominate human-kind instead of open systems.
It seems that Stone-age common sense and/or the natural intelligence of humankind applies even more today with the profusion of stercus tauri we are now subjected to by intellectuals and their autistic savants playing mathematician who can only function in closed systems and would naturally of been eliminated, one way or another, in any open or isolated system if such a society existed.
Entropy has no business being part of the Second Law exclusively because it's not just confined to any closed system (which is what the Second Law describes exclusively) and unlike the Third Law of thermodynamics, it contains no protocols to measure any form of entropy so everyone may ask why it's there in the Second Law. Intellectuals have created a monster that is anti-Newtonian or anti-Galilean since the Second Law version only describes "Fate" like we would describe a god and its verdict and nothing like cause and reaction, etc. In an equivalent manner, this thing is broken up bits and pieces of leftovers from 'The Theory of Cohesion' (which at least does have cause and effect) and 'Caloric' among other things from the time when there were 'Natural Philosophers and there were no scientists yet since the First and Second Laws of Thermodynamic made their appearance at about this time when the Natural Philosophy was beginning to disappear and science was getting a makeover and being turned into a standardized system where we can just forget creative new approaches or ideas where it would have been possible (or natural) to collate any problems for the Universe's mass, whose mechanisms creating an exchange would be allotted to Black Holes and Quasars, and on the other side with the Universe's Accelerating Expansion, while keeping in mind the possibility of other things not yet discovered.
This is also the decisive difference between the Natural Philosopher and the Scientist; One is open-minded and leaves a welcome mat to new additions in ideas and things, and the other is closed-minded and divides things when new things show up and I mean this with no sarcasm here, and I'm being entirely serious. The irony here is that the Natural Philosopher dealt with division and not multiplication in their maths and the modern science loves multiplication and abhors division in their maths. There is always a conservation to be found everywhere which is especially easy to "see" where there is a conflict. These things are invisible to the intellectual or autistic savant who are renowned to see patterns in things, but not cycles. Is not a cycle a moving pattern?
It would be wise to reconsider what definition one accepts today as to what "genius" is, since it is quite clear that these people we admire and believe, we find that their powers are quite limited and can be proven with the very entropy they themselves created since there is no conservation in anything they say, do or expound. This is another reason why I say that the Second Law of Thermodynamics should not be scraped as its philosophy over time is valuable and it's actual message is, "You can't fool Mother Nature" and ironically, I see a phoenix rising from its ashes in the future and renewing itself without man's help. Life is beauty indeed!
This phenomenon will happen all by itself (like everything else in thermodynamics) and it is up us to open our eyes when that happens. Nature is supreme in all wisdom.
Concerning Kelvin and Clausius: It's wonderful that they finally accepted that motion produces heat, but motion is also part of entropy as per some system and we don't need the Third Law of Thermodynamic to show us that. This can be demonstrated in physics and in simple mathematics (statistically) as it can be proved that any form of movement can produce heat, not only motion can produce heat, hence why entropy never increases, never decreases or decreases as per a system.
Entropy is movement and not something bad and without it there is no Universe, but the physicist's method of deprecating the idea of movement and instead promoting motion is by using the term: Entropy.
Most modern physicists, cosmologists and theoretical/particle physicists are no better than most priests or evangelists since they all lie and talk utter nonsense because of this distinction they never consider. Creative and intuitive science made a spontaneous reappearance for the last time in WW2 when great minds were enlisted to work together to win the war so science was not a country club and controlled during that time by such places like The Royal Society or CERN, etc.
They leave entropy there the way it is (in the second law) because 99.99% of the population is already fully contaminated with insidious ideas and with cultural "tradition" whose near-antiquity is a subculture in itself along with ancient deterministic and materialist philosophies where universal misinformation has been made to be equivalent to universal information to the extent that people like Stephen Hawking have written incredible tales about it (among other things) which is no better than Harry Potter stories or some post-modernist neo-tribe rambling.
To me, there is no difference between Susskind, Hawking, Krauss and their like and J.K. Rowling who wrote the Harry Potter series.
In my own search for a simple picture diagram that explains the Third Law I have found many that are deliberately tampered with to make it seem incomprehensible or confusing with different representations so people move on to other things thinking that it is too difficult.
Here, I continue this fine tradition by giving low temperature physics (basically anything that's cold with little entropy; ordinary ice is a fine and convenient example) some sentiment and adorable cuteness with this picture from a site that shows one how to make Igloo Pudding.
Many people have bizarre ideas about low-temperature physics for no reasons, as if it were some holy grail where in actuality the Third Law of Thermodynamics merely defines what and how Absolute Zero is about, completing the principle itself, but gives it a doorway to open systems thereby demolishing the closed system that Absolute Zero was conceived for by Kelvin. One must think of heat like we think about time.
If one looks at the sun, we are seeing it as it was 8:00 minutes ago. Look at anything around you, the light reflected off its surface took a few millionths of a second to get to your eyes, but there will never be 0:00 time between any perception of anything. Everything we see and know is the past or is already gone and I did not include the time it took to process that information in the brain. It is the same with heat, but with a difference, and discussing absolute zero is saying, "I want to be god".
The difference is that in heat, we need that time between any transfer from x to y to capture energy and convert it, or to put it to Work.
The men who conceived and established this Third Law quietly, were incredible geniuses in many areas who literally pulled the carpet out from under the scientific establishment's feet and slipped in something new imperceptibly which only an artist or a chess player, to this day, can understand, savour and appreciate and make it appear all normal besides. These men sacrificed glory, fame for the betterment of science and because of the Zeroth Law of Thermodynamics (which they also formulated that reestablishes Thermal Equilibrium and Equivalency) these men also knew what laid beyond, better than these celebrity scientist of today.
Because of this, the truly magnificent fact about Entropy now is that it can only be truly represented in a moving manner as if it were being launched, like in the animation of Humpty Dumpty for both The Second and Third Laws of Thermodynamics because Work is not affected by Entropy, but must be destroyed in any system if it does not produce value, or turned into another form of Work; only energy or power are affected by entropy, but not matter, but only the systems it is part of.
This is the hallmark of the Industrial Revolution which collaterally discovered that energy cannot be created of destroyed, but went ahead and created systems that must be created and destroyed continually!
That is science. So listen carefully next time you watch some science documentary and this is what you will find. They will turn real things that simply exist and put them into a system that must destroy itself or others. Thermodynamics shows that systems need not exist in such a way, or be exclusive to that idea or manner.
The Equivalency to be found here is one of great subtlety where concerning energy systems (Motion) we have action and reaction but with Movement we find one form of Work creates another form of Work. The animated Gif triumphs as it is now more than just an amusement since it can represent self-repeating changes which are necessary to express, especially with visual expressions that involve the Third Law of Thermodynamics. Concerning art, this is a revolution since the Third Law of Thermodynamics tells artists that all things must contain independent movement and must be represented as such. Nothing in Nature is an avatar.
In Quantum Mechanics, Particle Physics, Classical Mechanics, Low Temperature Physics and in Nuclear Physics, the interpretation of Entropy is different where as in this example of Humpty Dumpty who is about to fall, — or Not! According to the Second Law, if he falls, his pieces will never be as organized as before he fell and can never be put back together as before.
As said before, this is exactly like the 'Principle of Cohesion' (which no longer exists) in the days of Natural Philosophy before modern science and this should be no surprise for anyone today, even to grade schoolers where scientists and popularizers should not be making and writing, "Oh Wow!" condescending videos and books today when they discuss Entropy.
We see that the Second Law of Thermodynamics is a patchworks of all sorts of things sewn together. Like a witches brew: A bit of Caloric here, some Cohesion there and a dash of motion and stir! Turn off the fire and voilà, the first course is ready for the consumer's consumption.
The problem also, is with the word "organized" since it is only the form of Humpty Dumpty that gets broken. Humpty Dumpty was always "disorganized", especially if we look at Humpty Dumpty's molecules. "Disorganized" simply means that we are too primitive to understand what is organized and this we can see from the things and forms we have that we do consider organized, like "organized crime" or "organized religion", "organized science", etc., which themselves produce chaos, as we see on the news everyday.
This includes any type of societies we create. In another way, we simply have not been around long enough to understand Nature even remotely in any kind of system and have gone through considerable effort to actually make Nature something to despise and move away from like the way art and science split apart in the past simply because Artists and scientist do not treat or view Nature in the same manner where once they did. Therefore it is not even in the purview of the most wisest and intelligent of our species to decide for anybody what is organized or disorganized, since the Universe obviously functions extremely well the way it is, and always has been functioning well and it does not seem to be deteriorating either.
One does not need a psychiatrist to tell us these celebrity scientists are crazy; we have Entropy to do that.
This would be where we introduce the concept of Work in thermodynamics because one form of Work (the creation of Humpty Dumpty) was changed to another form of Work (by Humpty Dumpty becoming broken), but no mass, energy or disorganization was lost or created; all these things were simply transferred.
Most of of the atoms/molecules missing between the broken parts of Humpty Dumpty that were once part of "cohesion" has been turned into sound, or some other form of heat. The atoms/molecules, themselves, and whatever leftover heat those molecules possess are now part of the air and its molecules. The only thing gone is some design and some new design (the broken pieces) has replaced it.
Since Humpty Dumpty is only some design, it can be replaced, but the old Humpty Dumpty cannot ever be put completely back together again, or at best, it's would become a new paradigm: The Broken Humpty Dumpty + Glue. (This is how artists name their works of art.)
The Third Law of Thermodynamics shows that all forms are subjective, or a question of magnitude and even may be total illusions created by the mind, but the act of creating form is objective and the only thing pertaining and important to reality. Now, we only need one Entropy for both Laws of Thermodynamics.
By science giving importance only to form without any dynamic (à la Plato), i.e., while not recognizing any act of 'creation of form' (Work); science creates gnostic deities, lies and everything they describe becomes superficial, unnatural or supernatural (Atheism or Gnosticism) to fill in this space simply because, like Plato, they don't like to get their own hands dirty.
This is where we see that scientists are actually being superficial and Maxwell, through Gnosticism, believes in god so neither should be thought of saying the entire truth or reality of anything concerning science and philosophy.
Without motion and movement there is nothing. Even a thought must move from A to B for it to exist and be real. Existence is movement and motion in a system not form or ideas, and certainly not something cut out like cookies from a cookie cutter (Plato) who never asked who is doing all that Work, but assumed it was a deity where in a universe of natural movement and motion, an outside deity is entirely unnecessary and superfluous.
Nevertheless, we must recall that concepts like Work are repugnant to philosophers, intellectuals and scientists and will go to great lengths to hide this vanity of theirs.
'Cohesion' was a term described in physics as well as chemistry, of the time, where: "If we break a glass, we destroy the cohesion; the particles cannot be reunited". (Also, look up the differences between cohesion and adhesion.) See: Popular scientific recreations, tr. and enlarged from 'Les récréations ... By Gaston Tissandier P. 25. which is entirely scientifically correct and where "Entropy" slipped in somehow we may ask why, but it satisfies gnostic and atheistic parameters for existence and control. Where with the Third law, the Entropy exists with the act of teetering Humpty Dumpty himself, before he will fall or not.